Ethical Leadership as an Influence: A Multi-Level Analysis Predicting Citizenship Behavior
Maheen Masood

Abstract
This study incorporates two different types of perspectives determining the factors influencing citizenship behavior. Social exchange perspective incorporates the interpersonal relations of leaders and followers, which are hamper through workplace ostracism. Social learning perspective considers an employee’s behavior to be influence by the ethical behavior of their leader. In order to study the impact of these diverse views on citizenship behavior, a multi-level model of ethical leadership is develop in order to determine the direct, indirect and cascading effects of workplace ostracism on either organizational or compulsive citizenship behavior. The study proposed that immediate level managers ethical leadership practices tend to have the greatest impact on the citizenship behavior of employees. In addition, if the immediate level manager adopts an ostracized behavior with its subordinates then it will lead to compulsive citizenship behavior. Besides this, higher-level manager’s ethical leadership practices also play a vital role in influencing citizenship behavior unlike lower level managers who have the least influential impact on middle level employees.


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